# Space, Observable and Range¶

Inside zfit, `Space`

defines the domain of objects by specifying the observables/axes and *maybe* also
the limits. Any model and data needs to be specified in a certain domain, which is usually done using the
`obs`

argument. It is crucial that the axis used by the observable of the data and the model match, and this matching is
handle by the `Space`

class.

```
obs = zfit.Space("x")
model = zfit.pdf.Gauss(obs=obs, ...)
data = zfit.Data.from_numpy(obs=obs, ...)
```

## Definitions¶

**Space**: an *n*-dimensional definition of a domain (either by using one or more observables or axes),
with or without limits.

Note

*compared to `RooFit`, a space is **not** the equivalent of an observable but rather corresponds
to an object combining **a set** of observables (which of course can be of size 1). Furthermore,
there is a **strong** distinction in zfit between a `Space`

(or observables)
and a `Parameter`

, both conceptually and in terms of implementation and usage.*

**Observable**: a string defining the axes; a named axes.

*(for advanced usage only, can be skipped on first read)*
**Axis**: integer defining the axes *internally* of a model. There is always a mapping of observables <-> axes *once inside a model*.

**Limit**The range on a certain axis. Typically defines an interval. In fact, there are two times of limits:**rectangular**: This type is the usual limit as e.g.`(-2, 5)`

for a simple, 1 dimensional interval. It is rectangular. This can either be given as`limits`

of a`Space`

or as`rect_limits`

.**functional**: In order to define arbitrary limits, a function can be used that receives a tensor-like object`x`

and returns`True`

on every position that is inside the limits,`False`

for every value outside. When a functional limit is given, rectangular limits that contain the functional limit as a subset**must**be defined as well.

Since every object has a well defined domain, it is possible to combine them in an unambiguous way.
While not enforced, a space should usually be created with limits that define the default space of an object.
This correspond for example to the default normalization range `norm_range`

or sampling range.

```
lower1, upper1 = [0, 1], [2, 3]
lower2, upper2 = [-4, 1], [10, 3]
obs1 = zfit.Space(['x', 'y'], limits=(lower1, upper2))
obs2 = zfit.Space(['z', 'y'], limits=(lower2, upper2))
model1 = zfit.pdf.Gauss(obs=obs1, ...)
model2 = zfit.pdf.Gauss(obs=obs2, ...)
# creating a composite pdf
product = model1 * model2
# OR, equivalently
product = zfit.pdf.ProductPDF([model1, model2])
assert obs1 * obs2 = product.space
```

The `product`

is now defined in the space with observables [‘x’, ‘y’, ‘z’]. Any `Data`

object
to be combined with `product`

has to be specified in the same space.

```
# create the space
combined_obs = obs1 * obs2
data = zfit.Data.from_numpy(obs=combined_obs, ...)
```

Now we have a `Data`

object that is defined in the same domain as product and can be used to build a loss function.

## Limits¶

In many places, just defining the observables is not enough and an interval, specified by its limits, is required. Examples are a normalization range, the limits of an integration or sampling in a certain region.

Simple, 1-dimensional limits can be specified as follows. Operations like addition (creating a space with two intervals) or combination (increase the dimensionality) are also possible.

```
simple_limit1 = zfit.Space(obs='obs1', limits=(-5, 1))
simple_limit2 = zfit.Space(obs='obs1', limits=(3, 7.5))
added_limits = simple_limit1 + simple_limit2
```

In this case, added_limits is now a `zfit.Space`

with observable ‘obs1’ defined in the intervals
(-5, 1) and (3, 7.5). This can be useful, *e.g.*, when fitting in two regions.
An example of the product of different `zfit.Space`

instances has been shown before as `combined_obs`

.

### Functional limits¶

Limits can be defined by a function that returns whether a value is inside the boundaries or not **and** rectangular
limits (note that specifying rect_limit does *not* enforce them, the function itself has to take care of that).

This example specifies the bounds between (-4, 0.5) with the limit_fn (which, in this simple case, could be better achieved by directly specifying them as rectangular limits).

```
def limit_fn(x):
x = z.unstack_x(x)
inside_lower = tf.greater_equal(x, -4)
inside_upper = tf.less_equal(x, 0.5)
inside = tf.logical_and(inside_lower, inside_upper)
return inside
space = zfit.Space(obs='obs1', limits=limit_fn, rect_limits=(-5, 1))
```

### Combining limits¶

To define simple, 1-dimensional limits, a tuple with two numbers or a functional limit in 1 dimension is enough. For anything more complicated,
the operators product * or addition + respectively their functional API `zfit.dimension.combine_spaces()`

and `zfit.dimension.add_spaces()`

can be used.

A working code example of `Space`

handling is provided in spaces.py in
examples.

### Using the limits¶

To use the limits of any object, the methods :py:meth`~zfit.Space.inside` (to test if values are inside or outside of the boundaries) and :py:meth`~zfit.Space.filter` can be used.

The rectangular limits can also direclty be accessed by `rect_limits`

, `rect_lower`

or `rect_upper`

. The returned shape is of
(n_events, n_obs), for the lower respectively upper limit (`rect_limits`

is a tuple of (lower, upper)).
This should be used with caution and only if the rectangular limits are desired.